Alexander Tsarev
Mushroom industry

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low yield

low yield

2 января 2011

climate, growing technology


What could be the reason for low yield? We get 2-3 kg mushrooms from 1 m2. Our substrate recipe is ok, spawn is good (it is said to give up to 35 kg/m2), growing rooms are clean. Could it be only the pasteurization - we can only heat our substrate 24 hours and maximum temperature will be 45-48`C. Could it be only ventilation - we can ventilate the growing room maybe only 8 times/24 hours.

Substrate is in bags, about 25 cm and casing 3 cm. No scratching (loosening).

We get mushrooms during 2-2,5 months and we have to cut them every day - we do not have breaks. Our mushroom beds are not filled with many mushrooms as it should be.



  1. Anonymous, 28 февраля 2011:

    hi ,Kristina. Ljilijana already answered you. just want tell you, that -15 should not be problem. this winter was cold and at my place blocks of compost lay on concrete floor. and still get about 27 kgs /m2. after break fresh air should be open. recirculation should save some energy costs, but dont push it too much. compost quolity should be good. i use casing 5 cm, make it loose for better gas exchange. did you try to grow on different compost, maybe you can get some phase2 or 3. after that you will know, is it growing mistakes or compost itself.

  2. Kristina, 20 февраля 2011:


    I use wheat straw (92% dry, N 0,5% and chicken manure (60%dry, N 37,3 kg/ton). To have N 1,5-1,7%, I should use 3000 kg straw for 2000 kg chicken manure and add about 200 kg gypsum?

  3. Jovanovic Ljiljana, 8 января 2011:

    Second page:
    During vegetative growing mycelium needs CO2. But, when mushrooms start to growing, you must find way to ventilate, growing room. High CO2 will kill your mushrooms, and high CO2 will limited primordia of mushroom what are formed.
    After loosening casing soil, left 3 few days, to recuperate mycelium. When mycelium is ready , you start to cool down, you can do it during 4 days (in the winter time).
    But when mushrooms are formed, they have to have Oxigenum.
    If you have outer temperature verry lou, you can try to heat air, before you ventilate growing room. And also,in the winter,outer air is dry, and when you put it in growing room, air relaltive humidity will be even louer. Because of it, some vapaour, can help,
    It will heat air, and give more humidity, in the air.
    Because if you regulate ventilation on the CO2 bassis, it will make you problems with cold. Also, mushrooms will grow, at 15-16ºC, but without Oxigenium will not growing or will grow malformated.
    Air humidity, has to be 80-90 % relative humidity, during this period of growing and picking mushrooms.

    Mrs. Kristina, when you know chemical analysis of row material, you can calculate compost formula to get proper relation betwen C:N. You have to check, how much NH3 has in compost. During winter,cconcentration of NH3, has to be higher , to mantain thermal capacity of compost. Also, windrow, has to be stucked high, 2,2- 2,5 m. and 2,0 m.large. But, it depend verry much of equipment you have, to make compost.
    Windrow sides, you press more, to have litle bit slower air . In this case air movement will be slower, and it will give time to compost to be heated.

  4. Jovanovic Ljiljana, 7 января 2011:

    Dear Mrs. Kristina,

    You make compost, at open, but, it is to long time, or I misunderstand.
    Composting process, in windrows, is slower, it is true, but it’s fermentation is to long time. During this proces, you loose organic material and dry material and acumulate minerals content. Les organic material, less mushrooms !
    Fermentation has to be more short as it is posible, at proper temperature. (60-80C).
    Preveting till straw apsorb suficient water,(even straw with hors manure), mixing with chicken manure, gypsum , and thoroughly mixing. In this way, you will get good mixture of compost, stuck high windrow,to save heat in compost and there will be high temperature in the midle of compost, and after 3-4 days, mixing compost in windrow, to give water if is necesary, and Oxigen in to compost. Even you have fermentaton at open, 18 days, is maximum of time.
    If you have to long composting process, before pastuerization has no more Carbon to get proper pasteurization. To have proper pasteurization, in compost has to left 20 gr. C : 1 gr. Nitrogen,at tunnel filing, to have good pasteurization process, and NH3 has to be about 04,% in dry material. In long fermentation proces, C will be louer, and has not any more energy to have 60C in „peak heating“ and have not food for termophilic mycrobes. Because of it, you have lou temperature during pasteurization proces. Also, compost lost Amonium, during long fermentation process.
    Please, find posibility to have chemical analysis, becuase without it, you do not know what you poot in composting pile. Because at begining of composoting your C:N has to be ~30, before pasteurization C:N has to be 20 and at end of pasteurizatione, C:N, has to be 16 (15-17). N =2,2 % in dry material, ( it is about 15% of protein in compost).
    Without analysis, is very dificult, to control compostin proces.
    Peat moss is good, depth 4- 5 cm. Take care, pH of peat moss is lou, because of it you must regulate pH at 7,7- 7,5 before you make casing of compost.
    If you have proper temperature, in the growing room, after 8-9 days, mycelium will be under surface of cassing soil. (But, you must control, when micelium comes up to 1 cm. under surface, yyou can make rufling (loosening). But, if temperature are not properly regulated, you can have diference in mycelium growing.

  5. Kristina, 6 января 2011:


    We have phase I outdoors in windrows for about 1 month, maximum temperatures up to 70`C. After that phase II heating in pasteurization chamber.

    For casing we have peat moss. How deep casing layer do you suggest and when should be the casing loosening?

    We can`t ventilate our rooms so often, because there are cold temperatures outside. We have inside air moving all the time, but fresh air not so often. If we ventilate more often, our room temperatures fall below 16`C.

    No chemical analyses done for compost. We use horse manure, straw, chicken manure and gypsum. N% should be about correct.

    Another question - if outside temperatures are -15`C, how is it possible to get the substrate windrow heating up?

    Thank you for your answers,

  6. Anonymous, 4 января 2011:

    Mrs. Kristina, Hi.
    Mrs. Kristina,

    I red your information.
    Where is your mushroom farm, what is capacity of production?
    To be able to give some information, we have to know, how you make compost.
    How you calculate compost formula ? Did you make chemical analysis of compost before pasteurization and before spawning?
    What kind of fermentation you have there?
    Do you have Indoor fermentation or at open in windrows?
    How is possible, to have so low temperature during pasteurization?
    And so short time? Do you make pasteurization at beds or in tunnels?
    What is temperature during fermentation?
    How many days, you complete pasteurization?
    It is strange, that you can, ventilate just 8 times /24 hours.
    Other thing, is that you use, just 3 cm. depth of casing soil.
    What kind of casing soil, you use? Peat moss or ground?
    It is just some of question, arosed,before possible to give some answer, and to be able to get any idea of problems you have.
    Best regards .


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