Alexander Tsarev
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Compost Production. Personal opinion (Part 2)

7 февраля 2012

compost production, compost

Tsarev Alexander Vladimirovich
From where at first, start composting process. If you are going to start with this type of activity, it is best to start with the selection and development of technology of Faze I, composting process.

In the second part of this article, I will attempt to describe the basic technology options composting Phase 1. Once again, I want to emphasize that this information provided here, reflects solely my idea of composting. In this case, we are not talking about some "clear” recommendations for all occasions, not at least because it is simply impossible, not to mention other aspects. The goal is to help those (who are interested in it) to look at composting a little wider and more systematic.

1. Heap-heap or stack-stack. Under heap, I mean to the pile of compost, packed without any regular geometric shapes. Pile - it is the exact same weight of compost, laid in a heap with vertical walls and flat upper surfaces. This is the most primitive version of the application, in general, only by manual labor. This practice is typically for small private enterprises, close to the amateur. Fermentation processes of compost are in heaps stacks of a certain size. The work in this case is turning mass from place to the place, with irrigation as needed. Perhaps the most negative point in that technology is very common in this kind of composting, are anaerobic conditions (lack of oxygen), which leads to a sharp decline in yields. However, with sensible approach to this technology, you can get compost with very good yields. Some improvements of this method can significantly reduce the number of turning and reduce the time of making up to 1.5 - 2 weeks. With this method of composting, we will take, with a ton of straw could reach 3 tons ready compost. The average quantity of produced compost is 2.5 tons on ton on 1 ton of straw.

If you are using these technology, possible effects on the composting process the minimum - a mass of moisture, the size and shape of the heap or stack-turning rate, packing density and temperature of the room.

2. Pile to windrow-windrow or windrow-windrow. Cone is a heap with width of 2.2 - 3.5 meters, height of 2 to 2.5 meters with a cone-shaped or semicircular top. Sides are vertical as possible. Compost pile will be long as necessary. When we use this technology to produce compost, it is practice with certain number of compost turning with irrigation when necessary. The geometrical dimensions of compost vary depending on the readiness of the compost, mainly to decrease the width to 2.2 meters. This technology allows the use of reasonably affordable technology and equipment. With the right approach to this technology, it is very difficult to get compost, which would not give mushrooms. This option is composting Phase 1 is used mainly in small productions, which because of some circumstances there is has not have bunkers, or you cannot work with the bunkers. This technology allows the use of conventional farm machinery. The effectiveness of this technology composting, given the ease of implementation and low cost of machinery and equipment, it can compete with the more "advanced" mushroom industries. This composting process duration for Phase 1, is 1 to 2 weeks.

The yield of compost Phase 2, is 2.5 - 3 tons per 1 ton of straw. Speaking of possibility to influence on the composting process, it is slightly bigger influence than in the first technological process, but yet minimal. We can control process and make some improvement by control moisture content in the mass of compost, size and shape of a cone, packing density, frequency of turning, and the temperature of the workroom.

3. Heap-windrow-windrow or windrow-pile. This technology and is now very widespread. After compost pre-fermentation in the heap, and in the windrow (or only in a windrow) fits into the pile width of 2 meters and a height of 1.8 - 2.5 meters, the walls are strictly vertical. Length of compost is arbitrary. Feature of this technology - the need for specialized equipment - processor-compost turning machinery (usually imported and high cost). With this machine, compost is stuck, in windrow, and after is regularly turned. The second point - the technology required for large composting areas. The effectiveness of the use of these areas and volumes of compost production facilities is relatively low. Time to compost preparing in Phase 1, with this technology are 2 - 3 weeks. Yield of the compost is about the same as in option number 2. At 3 weeks of composting, and long for this technology, productivity will be reduced. Yield of compost made by this technology is the lowest, the minimum can be up to 2 tons of compost two phases with a ton of straw. In this case, the yield of mushrooms is far from a record. Influence the course of the composting process with this technology can also only indirectly - through the mass of moisture, the size of the windrow, and the turning frequency, packing density in the pile, compost residence time at each stage.

4. Pile to windrow-bunker Phase1 or windrow-bunker Phase 1. Using this technology of composting, after several days of fermentation in the heap or in a windrow, compost is transferred by hopper in Bunker of a Phase1, with aerated floors, in which there is a final "maturation" Phase 1 compost. In comparison with the previous three options, this is more advanced technology. When you work with small amounts of compost, you can use the simplest of agricultural machinery. For large volumes of compost, working without imported modern composting machinery, is not possible. Terms of composting Phase 1, of this technology, are 10 - 13 days. Yields of the compost with careful observance of technology can be very high up to 40% by weight of compost. It is sufficient to significant decrease the area of the composting plant and the amount of work with compost. The possibility of the computerization process of composting in the bunker we can consider as a positive thing. The yield of compost produced in Phase 2, are 2.5 - 3 tones per 1. tone of straw. By the "pitfalls" of this technology is the fact that without a complete understanding of the relationship between the temperature of compost and its oxygen content, it is difficult to hope for success. There are a few important points connected with the temperature of the compost in the process of fermentation. However, fortunately, all these problems can be resolved. With this technology, we are capable to manage the composting process during its stay in Bunker in this phase of fermentation (in fact the second half of the process), more real. Using aerated floor in bunker, we can control the temperature of the compost. An important point - unfortunately, the compost temperature control at the same time not give a complete uniformity of temperature in the volume of compost. In other words, the center will always be warmer than the outer layers. Of course, with all the levers of control indirectly, as described above, remain valid. As with the previous technology - this is also one of the most common composting technologies in a phase of industrial scale today.

5. Preparation of compost in the bunker in First phase. Unlike the previous version here is that the whole process of fermentation is made in only one phase in a bunker, which is laying the compost is done once in a bunker. With this technology, number of turning of compost, from the bunker to bunker can be minimized. Terms of fermentation during from 8 to 12 days. With this technology, is obtained perhaps the highest efficiency of the composting area of the shop. The yield of compost Phase 2, a very high 2.7 - 3.2 tons to 1 ton of straw. Yields of appropriate quality compost can exceed 40% by weight of compost. In this case, the complexities of the technology described above, we can add a condition - to receive a perfect homogeneity of the mass at laying compost. Despite the economic prospects of this technology, it can hardly be considered as widely accepted, but I am sure it is a matter of time. Using this technology, we can influence the temperature of the compost during the process, unlike in the second half in the version number 4, while maintaining the natural heterogeneity of the compost temperature. Especially it will be clearly marked with small amounts of compost in the bunker Phase 1.

6. Making a compost Phase 1, in Bunker, the closed type of bunker. In other words, it is a preparation Phase 1 compost facility, identical to pasteurization tunnels - sealed and insulated. This technology is still rarely used, despite some positive aspects. This is an opportunity of a qualitative Phase 1 in 6 days, which gives the maximum reduction in the size of the composting plant and the highest yield of 1 ton of compost with straw, with a maximum potential yield of 45% per ton of compost two phases. The economic attractiveness of these indicators is enhanced by the fact that the work is reduced to an absolute minimum. Handling the process of composting - temperature, gas composition, at a very high level, with the possibility of computerization. In addition, unlike the fifth embodiment, here we have almost 100% positive homogeneity of these indicators throughout the volume of compost. As its logic, and some experience with compost, the main criterion of success in this technology will be an ideal uniformity of moisture content and composition of weight during the laying of the compost on the technology. There is another very strong argument in favor of this option and determine its future - an opportunity to create environmentally friendly compost.

Perhaps this is all the basic options composting Phase 1, but it is possible that in practice there are, or will some new technology. For example, now I have ideas for fifth and sixth embodiments of the elements of the natural draft. That is, the compost is almost necessary to provide them with oxygen alone, without ventilation. The first practical steps in this direction have shown very interesting results. Future plans - the creation of Technology 3 in 1.

Load the material into a container, after a while add the mycelium, and get the compost Phase 3. In other words, compost is completely overgrown with mycelium and ready to case the cover soil. Imagine – that no need to compost workshop, tunnel pasteurization, in clean areas, in the third phase! In addition, as it becomes unnecessary to very expensive equipment! The practice and theory show that in principle it is possible. I hope the above information will help you make the first move - the right choice of technology for mushroom compost on your planned mushroom production.

To be continued ...

In the next part the conversation will go about choosing a raw material for compost and compost preparation formula... Compost Production. Personal opinion (Part 3)


  1. levsam, Nairobi, 6 марта 2019:

    many thanks to this website.i would like to know why is preferably to use forest soil instead of farm soil?

  2. Chennai, 7 октября 2018:

    I am interesting watch button mushroom compost preparation is isley to thanks for you by Elumalai

    • Chennai, 7 октября 2018:

      Elumalai 9626223812

    • Yogesh awana ,Gurgaon, 3 марта 2019:

      I am new to Button Mushroom though I have done the technical course from DMR, Solan HP
      I want you to share your experience /suggestions for the begginers
      Thanks & Regards
      Yogesh awana

  3. kumaar,chennai,india, 7 июля 2017:

    your compost yard is very beautiful, but we want video is best

    • Delhi, 26 июля 2017:

      I am new to Button Mushroom though I have done the technical course from DMR, Solan HP
      I want you to share your experience /suggestions for the begginers
      Thanks & Regards
      Vivek Kapoor

  4. knr.Suresh, 25 августа 2015:

    Really amazing about your knowledge and creative in the Button Mushroom Growing process.

    Expecting personal Visit to the farms globally to gain your expertise.

  5. hani karaj, 3 мая 2015:

    we use of A15 strain of Agaricus bisporus and you use whit kind of spawn?

    • Delhi, 26 июля 2017:

      I am new to Button Mushroom though I have done the technical course from DMR, Solan HP
      I want you to share your experience /suggestions for the begginers
      Thsnks & Regards
      Vivek Kapoor

  6. Hamdi, 25 декабря 2013:

    Many thanks for these important and useful informations

  7. Weerasinghe, 25 декабря 2013:

    I am also a button mushroom grower. Fresher to the technology. It as so useful me to improve my knowledge and to get quality of mushroom.

    • Delhi, 26 июля 2017:

      I am new to Button Mushroom though I have done the technical course from DMR, Solan HP
      I want you to share your experience /suggestions for the begginers
      Thanks & Regards
      Vivek Kapoor


Proteins in compost at the end of phase II

Shaurya india:

I also agree with sir basic thi g is ti perform the phase 2 as per protocol rest observe it and done

Dmitry, Winnipeg, MB:

I am dealing with compost production for a few good years in different countries and I am not...

Without chicken manure compost? Yes, it's possible...

Shankar India:

Sir please send formula for compost
Preparation without chicken manure.
Email: shankarsoftwr@gmail...

Without chicken manure compost? Yes, it's possible...

Zainab noor, Karachi Pakistan:

Hello. I am eager to know what alternate you have used instead of poultry manure for nitrogen. Please...

Царев Александр Владимирович:

Mr. Shaurya good day, Sorry I was on business travel. Because of it, I couldn't answer at your request...

Mushrooms in the basement (third part)

ferasof syria:

its m3

Shaurya Hoshiarpur punjab:

Sir you please go for decomposed coir pith, that’s the best casing material for mushrooms as it has almost...

Shaurya Hoshiarpur Punjab india:

For flies I would suggest take a bulb holder and fit bulb and wrap it with polythene bag and than apply...

How long can mushrooms be kept fresh?


I am from. Chennai, India. Interested in attending a mushroom course at your place.. Kindly advise...

How long can mushrooms be kept fresh?


Which grade of formalin use for mushrooms

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