Reasons growth abnormalities.
Areas of compost not grown with mycelium or poor mycelium growth in the compost.
|• Pythium disease (black compost);|
• The presence of nematodes or fly larvae;
• Improperly prepared compost;
• Ammonia remains in the compost;
• Excessive compost humidity;
• Degenerating strain;
• Low-quality, diseased and nonviable mycelium;
• Overly high compost temperature (above 30°C) on spawn growth stage.
Poor and uneven mycelial growth in the casing layer.
|• overly high or low temperature of the mixture;|
• incorrect pH level of the mixture;
• unsuitable mixture components;
• poor mixing of casing soil ingredients;
• overly humid or overly dry casing layer;
• nonuniform casing soil application (different height);
• casing layer that is too thick (above 6 cm);
• poor mycelial growth;
• the infection of compost by competing fungi and the presence of pests, such as nematodes.
The formation of stroma
|• low-quality degenerating strain;|
• mycelial growth in a poorly ventilated casing layer, with a high concentration of carbon dioxide, high temperature and humidity and a high volume of evaporation;
• overly long period of mycelial growth in the casing layer.
The problem can be solved by regulating the ventilation system, lowering the carbon dioxide concentration and the air temperature; and slight loosening of the casing layer; in serious cases, casing layer might be applied again.
Mycelial growth in the casing layer and its subsequent disappearance.
|• virus disease;|
• overly high pH level;
• improper casing mixture preparation;
• improper watering of the casing layer.
Pins do not form.
|• imbalanced pH level;|
• casing layer that is overly humid or overly dry;
• an excess content of magnesium in lime;
• high level CO2;
• improper pinning technique;
• degenerating strain;
• the presence of nematodes;
• virus disease.
The appearance of early mushrooms (before or at pinning).
|• a thin casing layer along the edges of the beds;|
• nonobservance of the climatic regime on the stage of mycelial growth in the compost, that is, early entry of fresh air and the decrease of CO2 concentration;
• low temperature.
Poor or insufficient pinning.
|• nonobservance of the pinning regime for a specified strain (of poor pin formation);|
• low air humidity;
• excessively high concentration of CO2;
• excessively high air temperature;
• casing surfaces damaged with a strong water head at watering;
• improper casing layer structure.
|• nonuniform casing layer (different height);|
• nonuniform watering of the casing layer;
• casing layer damages caused by a strong water head;
• nonuniform distribution of air in the growing room and as a result of different microclimate conditions.
Excessive (abundant) pinning.
|• inappropriate pinning regime for easily-pinning strain;|
• abrupt pinning regime, that is, a sudden decrease in compost and air temperature;
• thin casing layer.
|• strain extinction;|
• excessively high level of humidity;
• excessively high temperature;
• a lack of fresh air, and a high level of CO2;
• insufficient nutrition;
• insufficient amount of moisture in the casing layer;
• untimely irrigation (too early);
• inappropriate climate conditions after irrigation (the formation of condensate on mushrooms);
• virus disease;
• severe pest infestation (flies, nematodes) or diseases.
The formation of pins inside the casing layer and dirty mushrooms.
|• mistakes during the pinning process (untimely pinning);|
• a very dry casing surface;
• the casing soil composition due to which pieces of peat remain on mushroom caps;
• improper harvesting technique.
The formation and mushroom growth in clusters.
|• tendency of the strains to form clusters;|
• low periodical air temperatures during pinning.
The deformation of fruit bodies, misshapen mushrooms, mushroom intergrowth.
|• low-quality, degenerating strain;|
• excessive level CO2, imbalanced climatic conditions;
• Mycogone or Verticillium diseases;
• The effect of a great amount of pesticides and other chemicals.
The formation of scales or «crocodile skin».
|• very dry air;|
• strong air movement with low relative humidity;
• shortcomings in the air supply and distribution system;
• tendency of the strain to form scales;
• damage done by pesticides.
Outgrowths on mushroom caps – «cock’s comb».
|• an overdose of pesticides;|
• casing layer infected with chemicals;
• the effect of exhaust and harmful gases, heating appliances, diesel oil, formalin vapors, dissolvers, paint.
Tough gills and open veil.
|• the susceptibility of some strains;|
• disruptions of climate conditions.
Thick stipes, small caps.
|• excessively high CO2 level on the initial stage of growth.|
|• the growth of a big amount of mushrooms due to excessive pin formation, accumulation of a great amount of CO2;|
• mummy disease;
• virus disease.
Hollow and split stipes.
|• improper irrigation;|
• the application of moist casing layer, its drying, and quickly bringing it to the required humidity level.
A small cap on a normal stipe.
|• improper climatic conditions for specific strains;|
• the susceptibility of some strains.
|• virus or bacterial disease;|
• the nearness of areas colonized with trichoderma;
• improper irrigation regimes;
A change in color of fruit bodies (darkening).
|• bacterial blotch disease;|
• phenolic vapors;
• improper use of pesticides;
• the disruption of climatic conditions after irrigation;
• leaking of water from the beds of compost above.
sean toronto ontario canada:
Can you help me understand the plenum in the aerated tunnel? I need to know what calculations i need...Mushrooms in Kazahstan
Muhammad Abbas, Peshawar, Pakistan:
I would like to serve my services for Kazakhstan mushroom companies or Russian...
It looks good ,but how about production i.e mushroom kg/m2Without chicken manure compost? Yes, it's possible...
Please Let me know the alternative used for Compost in place of chicken manure
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What size bags are used in the pictures and where is a good place to source them?How long can mushrooms be kept fresh?
U.Harsha vardhan, Nellore,Andhra pradesh:
How to prevent inked caps in mushroomsProteins in compost at the end of phase II
I also agree with sir basic thi g is ti perform the phase 2 as per protocol rest observe it and done
Dmitry, Winnipeg, MB:
I am dealing with compost production for a few good years in different countries and I am not...
Sir please send formula for compost
Preparation without chicken manure.