Alexander Tsarev
Mushroom industry

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Mushrooms in the basement (third part)

18 сентября 2010

home-made, mycelium, compost

Mushroom growing in artificial conditiones has two main fases:
Compost making and Mushroom growing. About compost producton we spoke previously, in (Part One and Part Two.) In this Third part, we will speak about Compost Spawning.


To produce mushrooms, the most important factor is to liberate compost of Amonium, (NH3), because it is poisonous for mycelium. To do this, we have two methodes:

Compost pasteurization

First method, is to put the compost in pasteurization tunnel, left it proper time, and maintain temperature toward predileted grafic .
Pasteurization is the best way, to empty compost out of amonium, but also to kill microbes what can provoce diseases and microbes harmfull to the mycelium.
On this way, we can produce maximum of mushroom yield . To produce mushrooms on industrial base, pasteurization has to be don.

Cooling down of compost

This simple extensive methode, is practiced by amateur growing mushrooms. To produce compost on this way, we have to maintain compost with low temperatures 40 -50 °C. When compost stay on these temperatures, microbes living in compost, use Amonium, and on this way make compost free of Amonium.

To do this, we have to make compost windrow, lower, than normaly. On this way, we can controling temperatures in the compost pile, mantain them on 40 -50° C. After 2 — 4 days, we start cool down till get 25° C, to get ready compost for spawning...
Doubtless, this kind of compost production doesnot perfect, to make compost ready for spawning, because can be ilnes and harmful microbes what damages mushrooms mycelium . But this kind of compost can give production of 150 kg. of mushrooms/ 1 ton.of compost...


Mycelium ( mushroom spawn) is incubated on wheat grain or othrer kind of grains, where hifas groowed . Spawn is produced in the specialized laboratories and it is recomandible to buying spawn from there. When we are buying spawn, we must check
date and quality of mycelium... Spawn is sold in poliethiel bags with volume of 2 till 15 litars. Bags has to be intact, and filter for mycelium respiration has to be intact. Generaly, spawn have to have gay-white color,of mycelium on the grain, without colored bloches, especialy cant have brown and green bloches, ( green color, often aperas under filter , when it is demaged.
Mycelium cant have tisued growing and aperance, if apear this kind of mycelium, this is prove that bags with spawn are preserved long time and in not proper conditiones.
Spawn has to be kiped at +2-4°C . Optimal spawn of preservation is 3 monthes, ( even 6 monthes).

Mycelium infected by Trichoderma mold
Spawn has to be kiped at +2-4°C . Optimal spawn of preservation is 3 monthes, (even 6 monthes).

Bags of 2 litars with mycelium

Bags of 15 litars with mycelium


Mushroom growing in the bags, is more convenient to the smaller growing plants.

It is recommendable to use, disposable polyethylene's bags, to get the most efficient way of hygienic roles, hygienic measures, to control mushroom diseases and fight with mushroom competitors. It is important when we use nonpasteurizating compost....

Bags are made of a polyethylene sleeve width 70 cm height of bag is usually 85-90 cm in diameter — 45 cm, thickness 100-150 microns (diameter and height of the bag will vary depending on the width of the existing sleeves film). The sleeve is cut to pieces the desired length, then one side or hot glue (iron, soldering iron), or sewn.


Spawn quantity is calculated in liters or kilograms. 1 liter of spawn is about 600 gr. of weight.

1 kg. Spawn has 1, 6 liters in volume. Standard spawning rate is 8 -10 liters / 1 ton of pasteurized compost or 5 -6 kg. Spawn / 1 ton of compost. Spawn quantity can be increased +10%, this quantity will make mycelium to grow faster in the compost, but it will not increased mushroom yield. If we spawned compost with less spawn, it will make mycelium incubation rather slower, but has not decreased mushroom yield.

Day before spawning, it is recommendable, to take spawn out of cooling room and left it on room temperature to help mycelium to start growing. On this way, mycelium will start faster to growing in the compost.

The most important goal is to mix thoroughly spawn in the compost, and mycelium has to be equally mixed in all parts of compost. To do this, take a small container (it should be of solid material with smooth walls), and fill it with compost. Fill in the necessary way to make it convenient to mix the compost with mycelium. Weight the quantity of compost that fit into the container. Quantity of mycelium on one container, determine on way, to have quantity of spawn, what is corresponding to the final quantity of spawn, on 1 ton of compost. The mycelium can be a spill on the surface of compost, and gradually spawned when as we filled tanks.


We have to mix compost thoroughly, and after that press very tightly.

It is important that each bag have the same amount of compost, but it is important role what has density of compost in the bag. Usually it is 400 — 450 kg compost on 1 m3. In the bag of the above size is 15-20 kg of compost, spawned with mycelium. Compost surface should be smooth; it is a necessary condition for the future application of a cover of casing soil. The height of compacted compost layer is approximately 30 cm.
The compost bag we can be close in two ways.

First way: bag plastic collected in "beam" and tied with rope or wire. Thus, it is desirable to leave a small hole with a diameter of 1-2 cm to reduce water condensate accumulated in the bag.

The second way: plastic folded envelope, thereby closing the surface of the compost. In that way, the condensate will accumulated much more, and it can make problems with the mycelium growth over compost surface layer.

Compost in plastic bags can be press, on different ways, ranging from the use of metal forms (snip tin pipes required diameter) and some kind of pestle, to be able to press t compost, or to press compost by hand or by legs, but, just over closed plastic.


  1. Maher altaweel, 25 декабря 2013:

    just to say. marvelous and i wish you more success

  2. naidu, 25 декабря 2013:

    how much mycelium required for kg of compost

  3. Jovanovic Ljiljana, 25 декабря 2013:

    Mr. Dries,<br>Thank you for red our text. We chnaged, wrong numbras. <br>Has to be 0,4- 0,45 t. / m3, compost density. <br>Sorry for mistake.<br>Sincerely Ljiljana.

  4. Dries, 25 декабря 2013:

    Under the heading "compost presing" it is mention 300-400kg of spawned compost per 1 m2. Somewhere else on this site it is mentioned 100kg of spawned compost per 1 m2. So which one is correct?

    • ferasof syria, 24 ноября 2019:

      its m3

  5. ikol ivan, 25 декабря 2013:

    very impresive

  6. kymitch, 25 декабря 2013:

    Hello;<br>I have a question about bags of agaricus spawn that I purchased. bags were placed in the refrigerator for 8 hours at -6 ° C accidentally (fridge disturbed), I've realized this morning upon waking and 'I really fear that the spawn is damaged. what do you think??<br>thank you


Compost Production. Personal opinion (Part 2)



Without chicken manure compost? Yes, it's possible...

Hannes, Plettenberg Bay, South Africa:

Can you give me more details on compost without chicken manure for mushroom growing, what alternatives...

Without chicken manure compost? Yes, it's possible...


Hi kindly share your formula using 1000kgs wheat straw and no chicken manure. Email shroomcoenterprise...

Compost production: estimation of the process according...

Seyed Hoseini Iran:

????? ??? ????? ??? ??? ????

watering first flush mushrooms

Edwin, Harare:

Its best to water when pins are thumb size, increase air speed after watering so the surface of the mushrooms...

Without chicken manure compost? Yes, it's possible...

Ritesh Sharma, Dholpur, Rajasthan India:

My email id ritesh@. We are coming up with 52 Mushroom...

Compost production: estimation of the process according...


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Usually paddy straw have a low structure.its have a fast degradable you have focus on your compost...

Without chicken manure compost? Yes, it's possible...

JKSingh , Lucknow, India:

We have developed formulations of making compost without chicken manure. It yields similar or even better...

Without chicken manure compost? Yes, it's possible...

JKSingh, Lucknow, India:

We have developed formulations of making compost without chicken manure. It yields similar or even better...

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