Alexander Tsarev
Mushroom industry


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Mushroom in basement (first part)

20 2010

home-made, compost

Straw in round bales
Mushrooms what we are growing in artificial conditions has not any bad chemical properties, and they can be used without any risk, for cooking. Most popular growing mushrooms are Champignons Agaricus bisporus.

To growing mushrooms needs to have space with high factor of thermo isolation. These are cellars, basements. We can grow mushrooms in the glasshouses, during winter, when has not problems with cool air.
One growing cycle, (vegetative period) from spawning till end of mushrooms picking,

At list from 2, 5 3, 0 monthes. In case those temperatures in growing rooms are low 17-18C, growing period will be longer, * i.e. if temperatures are 10C, growing cycles will be around 4 months.

Spent compost, what rest after mushrooms are picked off, is excellent organically manure for growing: potatoes, tomatoes, cucumber, and other vegetables.

The best way, to use, spent compost is autumn period, when, ground is preparing for next vegetable growing season.

Mushroom's production process, is sustain of two main fazes: compost making and mushrooms production.

Here will be word of any of this.

Compost preparation

For difference of vascular plants, mushrooms cant produce food. They feed with ready organic materials, and this food must correspond to champignons feeding, by chemical parameters and quantities. Compost is place where champignon, mushrooms live and feed. To produce compost, is developed special technological procedure.

Quantity of produced mushrooms, 70% or even more, depend on compost quality.

To making compost, by hand is very hard job, and for it needs to have knowledge and practice.

Preparing of row materials

First stage- preparing row materials for compost making. For it, we have to prepare wheat straw, chicken manure, water, (these are basic materials) ,and gypsum in small quantity.


To produce compost needs straw, the best is to use wheat straw, ( winter or spring wheat straw), and straw of winter rye.

Other kind of straw,- wheat: oats, barley, better do not use, because this kind of straw is week, and will give bad quality of compost.

Straw must be dry, without of weeds plants, (even they has small quantity).

Straw has to be, without molds, and cant have wheat bran.

Straw quality we can judge by color. Darker color of straw give us information that this straw ha higher ash content. Consequently in straw left les organic material, compost made of this straw will be heavy, greasy, and will not give us, high quantity of the mushrooms. Yellow color of the straw is indicator of fresh straw; This straw is difficult to work with, because fresh straw difficult absorbs water. The best is last year straw, light yellow color by grayish shadow.

Straw is pressed in bales, and in this kind is transported. To work with straw is easier, when it is in the bales.

Chicken manure

For compost preparation, serves chicken manure, rest of chicken excrements. Base of chicken manure can be saw dust; straw (long as we need) sunflowers seed husks, wood bark, even peat moss.

Chicken manure elementary characteristics: minimum humidity, (maximum 50%), and maximum Nitrogen content (minimum 2%). Chicken manure structure has to be light, out of stones. Depend of chicken manure humidity and structure, it will be easy or difficult to mix and homogenize it in compost.

The best is to use fresh chicken manure, because it losing very fast Nitrogen, especially if it is humid. According with this, it is recommendable to not kipping chicken manure longer than 1, 5 months.


We can use ordinary water, (from waterworks, or from the water tank).
It is possible to use recycling water, (water what is recycled; some water what coming from wells, accumulated, in underground tanks, and use it when is necessary. We can add in the water ammonium nitrate: NH4NO3 (5-6 kg. / m3 of water), or urea or carbamide (NH2)2CO, (4-5 kg. / m3 water).


Even we use relatively small amount of gypsum, (60 kg. of gypsum / 1 ton of straw), to produce compost, it has verry important function in compost,because has influenze in compost structure formation, compost acidity, ( pH) what on end has importance on quantity of Nitrogen in the compost.
This is very important indicator about food for mycelium of mushrooms. Mycelium of shampinhon, is able to apsorb organic Nitrogen, and can eat ammonium.
But, when pH of compost is hgh, ammonium jons will transfers in free volatile NH3 moleculs, ammonia. This free NH3 ammonia, is mycelium poisonous . Because of this,
Absence of smell of free Ammonum is very important indicator of compost quality.
The best practice is using white Gypsum, to make compost. It is posible to use agricultural gypsum, ( fosfogypsum) , but it must be used in small amount (40 kg. of agryculture gypsum / 1 ton of straw). But quantity of gypsum, has to be jujdged at one case to other, and depend of quality of row material.

Compost formulation

This is general recepture to compost production. Before start to work, t is necesary to know chemical properties of row materials, what we use to make good quality of compost.
P.e. less chicken manure in compost formula, composting process will be slow and not regular. Temperatures in compost hep will be not high as theese is necesary (40 50C)
That will has consquence in great lost of organic mater, and compost will unproductive, mushroom production will be less than it is expected.
When quantity of chicken manure is to high, composting proces beginining actively, but big quantity of free ammonim (NH3) can limiting activity of mycrobes, livning in compost. Because of it, compost became heavy, with high ash ccontent, and lou water capacity. An other problem can be pH high, in this kind of compost. High concentracion of NH4, with high pH will liberate gassous ammonium,what stay in compost. This kind of compost is not good to mycelium growing, what will grow unequaly.
To make good reception, and proper relation quantity of chicken manure to 1 ton, of straw, we have to know row materials, analitical properties : Nitrogen content, Humidity Ash content, and chicken manure pH .
In case that we have not this informationes, the highest amount of chicken manure cant exced 700 kg. of 1 000 kg. o f straw. Normaly it is 450 600 kg. of chicken manure / 1000 kg. of straw.
Water quantity necesited for the 1 ton. of straw, during summer climate, is 4.5 m3 / 1 ton. of straw, on open uncover yard . During winter climate it will be 2,5 m3 water / 1 ton of straw suficient. Tne bigest quantity of water is neded for first straw watering.
We have to take knowldge, that good compost will be just whe is Oxigen present. When compost is to wet, Oxigen quantity will be scarse, and compost became acid, anaerobic, compost get bad smaling, and from compost pile water runing out. In this compost temperature is lou, not more than 60C, yelow greenesh colour, an out of ammonium smell.
Practicly it is not posible to make good compost from this anaerobic compost.


  1. naidu, 8 2018:

    what is the influence of NH4 in composting.

  2. naidu, 8 2018:

    what is the importance of NH4 in spawn run compost. what is the ranage better for good spawn run.


Compost Production. Personal opinion(Part 2)



Without chicken manure compost? Yes, it's possible...

Hannes, Plettenberg Bay, South Africa:

Can you give me more details on compost without chicken manure for mushroom growing, what alternatives...

Without chicken manure compost? Yes, it's possible...


Hi kindly share your formula using 1000kgs wheat straw and no chicken manure. Email shroomcoenterprise...

Compost production: estimation of the process according...

Seyed Hoseini Iran:

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watering first flush mushrooms

Edwin, Harare:

Its best to water when pins are thumb size, increase air speed after watering so the surface of the mushrooms...

Without chicken manure compost? Yes, it's possible...

Ritesh Sharma, Dholpur, Rajasthan India:

My email id ritesh@. We are coming up with 52 Mushroom...

Compost production: estimation of the process according...


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Usually paddy straw have a low structure.its have a fast degradable you have focus on your compost...

Without chicken manure compost? Yes, it's possible...

JKSingh , Lucknow, India:

We have developed formulations of making compost without chicken manure. It yields similar or even better...

Without chicken manure compost? Yes, it's possible...

JKSingh, Lucknow, India:

We have developed formulations of making compost without chicken manure. It yields similar or even better...

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